Module 4


Module 4 Home

Three Phases of Planning

Source: Adapted from Laws, K. (1989) Learning Geography through Fieldwork in Fien, J., Gerber, R. and Wilson, P. (eds.) The Geography Teacher's Guide to the Classroom, 2nd edition, Macmillan, Melbourne, p.107.

Teacher Students
Phase 1:
  • Determine purposes of fieldwork
  • Revise essential pre-requisite knowledge and skills
  • Fulfil all official requirements
  • Inform students and parents of purposes, costs, arrangements
  • Book site and transport
  • Visit site and plan activities
  • Brief guest speakers
  • Complete risk analysis matrix
  • Compile list of student names and emergency contact numbers
  • Be aware of the purposes of fieldwork (possibly contribute to their determination)
  • Master pre-requisite knowledge and skills
  • Develop data collection techniques
  • Know personal and group responsibilities
  • Be aware of arrangements, and necessary materials and equipment
Phase 2:
  • General supervision
  • Provide assistance when required
  • Encourage students to be analytical by raising questions such as Why? How?
  • Make direct observations- identifying, describing, constructing, measuring
  • Collect and record data
  • Use specific field techniques - sketching, mapping, transect
  • Make initial analysis and interpretations
  • Be aware of their own and other perceptions
Phase 3:
  • Provide additional information if essential at that time
  • Evaluate the complete experience - including organisation and learning outcomes
  • Directing students to other resources to confirm their findings
  • Organising information collected
  • Test hypotheses
  • Generalising on the basis of collected data
  • Checking findings with others
  • Discussing puzzling issues
  • Researching unanswered questions
  • Making presentations