General Wetland References

Adam, P. (1993). Salt Marsh Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. 461pp, photographs, maps and diagrams. General features of salt marshes, their ecology, modification, management and conservation. Some Australian case studies mentioned.

Barnes, R.S.K. (1980). Coastal Lagoons - the natural history of a neglected habitat. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. 106pp, diagrams and tables. Discusses formation of lagoons, lagoonal environments, ecology, human uses, and methods of study. Some South East Australian case studies given.

Bourne, L. (1994). Wings and Water : wetlands of the mid south-east of South Australia. South East Book Promotion Group, Mt. Gambier SA. 31pp, illustrations and maps. Specific information on South Australian wetlands and their ecology.

Breckwoldt, R. (ed.). (1992). Discovering New South Wales Wetlands. Total Environment Centre, Sydney. 78pp, illustrations, photographs and maps. A wetlands guide book for the state of NSW, for such recreational activities as touring, walking and canoeing.

Busby, J.R. and Bridgewater, P.B. (1986). A preliminary atlas of mangrove species in Australia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 38pp, a reference which consists of primarily geographical maps. Information provided is the geographical distribution of mangrove species and their identification.

Buxton, R.B. (1991). New Zealand's wetlands: a management guide. Department of Conservation and the former Environmental Council, New Zealand. 102pp, illustrations. Text relevant to the wetlands of New Zealand.

Cowling, S. (1989). Wetlands Wildlife. The Nature of Wetlands in Southern Australia. Gould League of Victoria, Melbourne, 56 pp, full colour. An excellent general reference text introducing readers to the range of Australian wetland types in southern Australia.

Cowling, S. (1991). Explore Melbourne's Wetlands. National Trust of Australia, Victoria. 80pp, colour photographs and maps. Visitor's guide to 25 wetlands in and around Melbourne. Details given are; general description, ownership, management objectives, fauna and flora, history, major changes and threats.

Crisp, P., Daniel, L. and Tortell, P. (1990). Mangroves in New Zealand: trees in the tide. GP Books, Wellington, New Zealand. 69pp, illustrations (some colour) and maps. Text details aspects of mangrove swamps, plants and ecology in New Zealand.

Department of Conservation and Environment, Victoria. (1992). An assessment of Victoria's wetlands. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne. 66pp, maps. Detailed report about the wetlands of Victoria, and the geographical distribution.

Department of Environment and Planning, New South Wales. (1985). Coastal Wetlands of NSW. Department of Environment and Planning, Sydney. 4pp, illustrations. Information leaflet providing a summary of the wetlands in NSW.

Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Division, Queensland. (1992). Our Inland Wetlands. Department of Primary Industries, Fisheries Division, Brisbane, Queensland. 23pp, illustrations (some colour), and maps. Text details the wetlands of Queensland, and their ecology.

England, R. (1993). The Cry of the Coorong: the history of water flows into the Coorong: from feast to famine? Kingston, SA. 48pp, illustrations and maps. Text on the wetlands of South Australia.

Finlayson, M. and Moser, M. (ed.). (1991). Wetlands. Facts on File. Oxford, UK. 224pp, illustrations, maps and photographs (some colour). An excellent text about wetlands and their values, with separate chapters of various regions such as the Australasia and Oceania region. Also included is a useful glossary, and a list of the international RAMSAR sites.

Gordon, D.M. (1987). Disturbance to mangroves in tropical-arid Western Australia: hypersalinity and restricted tidal exchange as factors leading to mortality. Environmental Protection Authority, Perth, WA. 36pp, illustrations and maps. Discusses the ecology of the mangrove swamps in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, with particular reference to the plant species and how they are effected by salt, and other factors which affect their conservation. Appropriate text for senior secondary students.

Haddon, F. (1982). The Australian Environment-Swamps and Estuaries. Hodder and Stoughton (Australia) Pty Limited, Sydney. 48pp, illustrations and colour photographs. General information on wetlands, and common flora and fauna present. Text is not detailed, but provides a summary of the topic.

Haigh, C. (ed.). (1983). Parks and Wildlife-Wetlands in New South Wales. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney. 72pp, photographs (mainly colour), maps and diagrams. This reference gives an overall description of wetlands in NSW, and has detailed sections on the vegetation, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals, waders and other birds in the wetlands ecosystem, and gives suggestions for the management of the wetlands and waterfowl.

Hook, D.D. (et al.) (ed.). (1988). The Ecology and Management of Wetlands. Volume one - Ecology of wetlands. Croom Helm Australia, NSW. 592pp, diagrams and maps. Separate scientific essays about the history of the use of wetlands, water quality values, biological values, formation, chemistry and biology of wetland soil, and the tolerance of the plant species. A text suited to senior secondary students.

Hook, D.D. (et al.) (ed.). (1988). The Ecology and Management of Wetlands. Volume two - management, use and value of wetlands. Croom Helm Australia, NSW. 394pp, diagrams and charts. Separate scientific essays on resource protection and management, evaluation methods for wetlands, water management on agricultural land adjacent to wetlands. A text suited to senior secondary students.

Hutchings, P. and Saenger, P. (1987). Ecology of Mangroves. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Queensland. Ecology of mangroves with specific references to Queensland case studies.

Jones, W. (1978). The Wetlands of the South-east of South Australia. Nature Conservation Society of SA, Adelaide. 81pp, maps. Detailed text about the wetlands and ecology of the south-east of South Australia.

Lane, A.P. (1982). Aspects of Wetland Hydrology in Victoria, Coastal NSW and Queensland. CSIRO Institute of Biological Resources, Division of Water and Land Resources, Canberra. 27pp, illustrations and maps. Description of wetlands and their hydrology in three states. Text suitable for senior secondary students.

Lear, R. and Turner, T. (1977). Mangroves of Australia. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia Queensland. 84pp, illustrations and photographs (some colour). This book describes the mangroves of Australia physically, geographically, and ecologically. Topics covered include the root systems, plants and animals, the function of a wetland, and the conservation. Discussed in detailed are eight prominent Australian mangroves species, and a complete species list.

Maltby, E. (1986). Waterlogged Wealth: Why waste the world's wet places? Earthscan, International Institute for Environmental Development, London. 200pp, maps, diagrams and photographs. There is good coverage of the types of wetlands, and their features, followed by case studies outlining threats and changes to wetlands. Reading level is upper and the case studies self-explanatory, up to date and challenging.

Masini, R.J. (1988). Inland waters of the Pilbara, Western Australia. Environmental Protection Authority, Perth, illustrations (some colour), and maps. A report of a field study which compiled information about the wetlands of Western Australia, and specifically the Pilbara region. Text most suited to senior secondary students.

McComb, A.J. and Lake, P.S. (1990). Australian Wetlands. Angus and Robertson, North Ryde. 252pp, photographs, diagrams and illustrations. This major reference is a 'must have' book if you are teaching or learning about wetlands. There are chapters on, for example, Australia's wetland heritage, and discussions of wetlands in the high country, lowlands, salt lakes, and artificial wetlands. A long chapter 'on the edge of the sea' describes waders, mangroves and seagrass meadows. Each chapter has case studies and special features written by experts, and is well illustrated. Reading level is upper secondary, but many younger good readers would be able to comprehend the text and pictures. There is also a useful glossary of scientific terms.

Mitsch, W.J. and Gosselink, J.G. (1986). Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc., Melbourne. 537pp, diagrams and charts. A book suited to senior secondary students, it has extensive information about wetlands. Topics covered are the various ecosystems, ecology, hydrology, definitions, and the management of wetlands.

Murray, P. (1982). Coastal wetlands of NSW: their ecology and interaction with the human environment. Total Environment Centre, Sydney. 62pp , illustrations. Technical report on marsh and wetland ecology, and the effects of human land uses. This report should be read in conjunction with Coastal Wetlands of NSW- a guide to their planning and protection.

New South Wales State Pollution Control Committee. (1979). Wetlands of Botany Bay and its Tidal Waters. State Pollution Control Committee, Sydney. 53pp, maps. An environmental control study of Botany Bay, with specific details of the wetlands.

O'Callaghan, P. (1992). Estuarine Wetlands: an Ecosystem Study. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Melbourne. 82pp, illustrations and maps. Technical report on the wetland ecology in the Melbourne region.

Paijmans, K. (et al.). (1985). Aspects of Australian Wetlands. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne. 71pp, maps. Descriptions of Australian wetlands and the ecology of this natural resource.

Powell, J.M. and Powell, J.P. (1991). Coastal River Environments, a Select bibliography. Hawkesbury River Enterprises, Sydney 68pp. Information on wetlands ecology, with particular reference to New South Wales, Hawkesbury River region. Available from Hawkesbury River Enterprises, PO Box A99, Sydney South, NSW 2000.

Pressey, R.L. (1986). Wetlands of the River Murray below Lake Hume. River Murray Commission, Canberra, ACT. 134pp, foldout charts, colour photographs, illustrations and charts. Concise scientific study of the Murray River watershed, and wetland ecology. An overall summary of the number and extent of wetlands, the management options and the study area.

Ranwell, D.S. (1972). Ecology of Salt Marshes and Sand Dunes. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London. 258pp., diagrams. General information about salt marshes such as climatic restraints, hydrology, mineral nutrient restraints, tidal influences, flora/fauna, structure and function of species communities. No specific Australian case studies, suited for senior secondary students.

Schulz, M. (1991). Sites of faunal significance in the western wetlands of Melbourne. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne. 284pp, maps. Detailed descriptions of the fauna species in significant wetland sites throughout Melbourne.

Semeniuk, V., Kenneally, K.F. and Wilson, P.G. (1978). Mangroves of Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalists Club, Nedlands, WA. 92pp, illustrations (some colour), diagrams and maps. This reference provides detailed descriptions of the mangroves in Western Australia.

Teas, H.J. (ed.). (1983). Biology and Ecology of mangroves. Dr W Junk Publishers, Netherlands. 188pp, photographs, diagrams and maps. Some relevant chapters on mangrove flora and fauna species, and the development of the mangroves. Australian and New Zealand case studies included.

Thompson, M.B. (1986). River Murray wetlands, their characteristic significance and management: report on a study of wetlands along the south. Nature Conservation Society of South Australia, Adelaide. 172pp, illustrations and maps. Text describes the wetlands in the River Murray region from New South Wales to South Australia.

Usback, S. and James, R. (1993). A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia. Australian Nature Conservation Agency, Canberra. 652pp. This resource lists all significant wetlands in each state, including Australia's RAMSAR wetlands. Details given are; location, area, elevation, wetland type, criteria for inclusion, site description, significance of notable flora and fauna, land tenure, current land use, disturbances or threats, conservation measures taken and management authority.

Western Australian Department of Fisheries and Wildlife. (1978). Wetlands of the south-west of Western Australia, with special reference to the Busselton area. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Perth. 18pp, colour plates, diagrams and maps. This text describes the wetlands of south-west Western Australia, and the ecology.

Williams, M. (ed.). (1991). Wetlands: a Threatened Landscape. Cambridge, Mass, USA. 419pp, illustrations and maps. Text contains information about wetlands internationally, wetlands ecology, economic aspects and conservation.

Plant Field Guides and References

Bridgewater, P.B., Rosser, C. and De Corona, A. (1981). The Salt Marsh Plants of Southern Australia. Botany Department, Monash University, Clayton, Melbourne. 64pp, illustrations and photographs. An excellent resource for plant identification in the field and in the classroom (for senior students and teachers). Well set out keys allows the student to identify species and plant communities. These keys are supported by detailed illustrations.

Brock, M.A. (1994). Plants and Processes in Wetlands. CSIRO, Melbourne. 196pp, illustrations. Details the plants observed in the Australian wetlands

Carolin, R., and Clarke, P. (1991). Beach Plants of South Eastern Australia. Sainty and Associates, Potts Point, New South Wales. 119 pp, full colour. General overview of the coastal environment and plant communities of South Eastern Australia, with an easy to follow guide of beach plants and plant families, with superbly detailed colour photographs. Useful references and glossary lists are also provided.

Halse, S.A. (1993). Vegetation of depth-gauged wetlands in nature reserves of south-west Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como, WA. 146pp, maps. Technical report about wetlands conservation, and the plant species observed in the depth-gauged wetlands in south-west Western Australia.

Pannell, J.R. (1992). Swamp Forests of Tasmania. Forestry Commission, Hobart. 159pp, illustrations and maps. Text specifically discusses the plant species discovered in this ecosystem.

Quigley, M. (1986). Flowering Plants of Salt Marshes and Sand Dunes. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK. 48pp, illustrations. UK field guide specially designed for secondary students. Although the salt marsh plant identification section is not applicable to Australian wetlands, the techniques outlining the design of a quantitative investigation through various sampling methods are most useful.

Lovelock, C. (1993). Field Guide to the Mangroves of Queensland. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland. 72pp, colour illustrations and maps. Excellent field guide resource to the identification of mangrove plants in Queensland.

Rippey, E. (1995). Plants of the Perth Coast and Islands. University of Western Australia Press, Nedlands, WA 292pp, illustrations (some colour), maps (some colour). An excellent resource field guide which contains specific information of coastal plants in WA, and the Perth region.

Sainty, G.R. (1994). Waterplants in Australia: a Field Guide. Sainty and Associates, Darlinghurst, NSW. 327pp, colour illustrations. An excellent guide for aquatic plants identification in Australia.

Tomlinson, P.B. (1994). The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge Universtiy Press, Melbourne. 419pp, photographs and diagrams. General outline of mangrove plants, mangrove ecology, floristics, biogeography, detailed plant family descriptions. Some Australian case studies mentioned.

Bird Field Guides and References

Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service. (1987). Japan-Australia Migratory Birds Agreement. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. Government report of protected birds from Japan to Australia, in relevance to the JAMBA treaty signed April 30, 1981. Displays illustrations of the birds on the list. Maps also included with breeding and migration areas.

Downes, M.C. and Watson, I. (1960). Australian Waterfowl. Fisheries and Wildlife Victoria and Imperial Chemical Industries of Australia and New Zealand, Melbourne. 48pp, illustrations (some colour). An excellent field guide resource for the identification of Australian waterfowl.

Frith, H.J. (ed.). (1977 with more recent editions available). Reader's Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds. Reader's Digest Services Pty Ltd, Sydney. 615pp, full colour photographs, maps. This book provides extensive information about the birds of Australia and their habitats, aided with the use of brilliant photography and distribution maps. An excellent resource for those interested in observing the birds of the Australian wetlands.

Frith, H.J. (1982). Waterfowl in Australia. Angus and Robertson, Sydney. 332pp, colour illustrations and maps. Detailed descriptions and illustrations of waterfowl in Australia.

Hancock, J. (1984). The birds of the Wetlands. Croom Helm, London. 152pp, colour illustrations. Discusses wetland ecology and specifically the bird species observed in this ecosystem.

Jaensch, R.P., Vervest, R.M. and Hewish, M.J. (1988). Waterbirds in nature reserves of south-western Australia, 1981-1985: reserve accounts. Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Canning Bridge, WA. 290pp, illustrations, maps and plans. This detailed text describes the geographical distribution of the wetlands and waterbird species in Western Australia, and the protection treaties which apply in the state.

Johnstone, R.E. (1990). Mangroves and Mangrove Birds of Western Australia. West Australian Museum, Perth, WA. 120pp, illustrations, photographs and maps. Detailed text on the bird and plant species found in the wetlands of Western Australia.

Kingsford, R.T. (1994). Waterbirds and Wetlands in North-western NSW. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Hurstville, NSW. 105pp, illustrations and maps. This text may be used as a field guide to observe the waterbirds in the wetlands of NSW.

Mason, P.L. (ed.). (1987). Birds of South-Eastern Australia: Oceans, Bays and Beaches. Gould League of Victoria, Melbourne, second edition. 94pp, full colour illustrations. Ideal hand sized field guide with detailed descriptions and illustrations of the bird species found in the coastal environment. Bird list and habitat index included.

Parker, S.A., Eckert, H.J. and Ragless, G.B. (1985). An annotated checklist of the birds of South Australia. Part 2A Waterfowl. The South Australian Ornithological Association, Adelaide. 25pp, illustration. This text lists the waterfowl of South Australia, and may be used as a field guide.

Pizzey, G. (1980). A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia. William Collins and Sons & Co. Ltd., Sydney. 460 pp, mainly colour illustrations. An excellent field guide of Australian birds with distribution maps provided, and over 700 species illustrated. Species descriptions include the common and scientific names, habitat, field marks, breeding and nesting types, voice or bird noises, and any similar species. This book is superbly presented and easy to follow; suitable for beginners and expert birdwatchers.

Simpson, K. and Day, N. (1984). The Birds of Australia: A book of identification. Lloyd O'Neil Pty Ltd, Melbourne. 352pp, colour illustrations. This book outlines introductory information of bird species and families with field information, distribution maps and illustrations. 758 bird species have been superbly colour illustrated by Day, allowing for field observation skills to be developed. Background information of Australian birds, habitats, and behavioural patterns are provided, along with hints for birdwatchers, a glossary, and an index of common and scientific names.

Simpson, K. and Day, N. (1987). Simpson & Day's Birds of Australia Logbook. Penguin Books Australia, Melbourne. 181pp, charts and illustrations. Birdwatcher's logbook with charts, checklists, and field notes. An introductory chapter is included describing the uses of the book, and a general outline given of bird anatomy and species classification. Perhaps best accompanied with Simpson and Day's book The Birds of Australia: A book of identification.

Slater, P. (1988). The Birdwatcher's Notebook. Weldon Publishing, Willoughby, New South Wales. 216 pp. A detailed guide to birdwatching techniques, identification problems, and Australian bird checklists. It has been primarily designed as a field guide notebook, with various checklists and charts, and has a limited number of illustrations and photographs. Best used in conjunction with Slater's The Slater Field Guide to Australian Birds.

Slater, P. (et al) (1988). The Slater Field Guide to Australian Birds. Weldon Publishing, Willoughby, New South Wales. 216 pp colour illustrations. An excellent field guide to Australian birds with eggs and nests illustrated as well as birds.

Animal Field Guides and References

Bennett, I. (1992). Collins Eyewitness Handbooks; Australian Seashores - A Guide to the formation, animal and plant life of Australia's seashores. Collins Angus & Robertson Publishers Pty Limited, Pymble. NSW, 266pp., full colour photographs and illustrations. An informative and easy-to-use guide to the formation, animal and plant life of each zone of the seashores of Australia (with some reference to wetlands). It includes more than 150 photographs and illustrations to help identify the many plants and animals found on Australia's seashores and also provides information on tide levels, waves, ocean currents and the sculpture and formation of Australia's coastline.

Breidahl, H. J. (1988). Coastal Wildlife. Gould League of Victoria Inc., Melbourne. 57pp, photographs and illustrations (many in colour). An excellent general reference. This text has relevant information on coastal lagoons, salt marshes, mangroves, and the fauna and flora.

Dakin, W.J. and Bennett, I. (1987). W.J. Dakin's classic study-Australian Seashores. Angus and Robertson Publishers, NSW. 411pp, full colour photographs and illustrations. A very comprehensive reference to Australian seashores with references made to wetlands and the flora and fauna discovered in these ecosystems. Brilliant presented resource, as the photographs and illustrations compliment the text.

Haddon, F. (1992). Environmental Field Guide to Flora and Fauna Australia's Seashores. Simon & Schuster Australia, East Roseville, NSW. 199pp, illustrations and colour photographs. Some relevant information on wetlands flora and fauna.

Hero, J-M., Littlejohn, M. and Marantelli, G. (1991). Frogwatch Field Guide to Victorian Frogs. Department of Conservation and Environment, East Melbourne. 108pp, colour photographs, illustrations and maps. Easy-to-use field guide for observing frogs in Victoria. Topics covered are; classification of frogs, biology, description of species and families of frogs in Victoria, distribution maps and habitats, and information on Victorian Wildlife regulations.

Hutchings, P. (1984). An Illustrated Guide to the Estuarine Polychaete Worms of New South Wales. Coast and Wetlands Society, Sydney South. 160pp, illustrations. General field guide for the observation of Estuarine Polychaete worms. Provided is a definition of the species and their habitats, and the procedures needed to be undertaken to identify polychaetes.

Hutchins, B. and Swainston, R. (1986). Sea Fishes of Southern Australia. Complete Field Guide for Anglers and Divers. Swainston Publishing, Perth. 180pp, full colour illustrations. Suitable reference for fish identification on the field, with a description, geographical location and illustration for each species.

Jones, D. and Morgan, G. (1994). A Field Guide to Crustaceans of Australian Waters. Reed, William Heinemann Australia, Sydney. 216pp, illustrations and full colour photographs. Excellent field guide for those wanting to study crustaceans. Brilliant photograph and descriptions will aid in field observations. Common and scientific names are given, along with the description of each species and family, and their habitats.

Stodart, E. and Slater, E. (1977). Seashores of Australia. Rigby Limited, Melbourne. 63pp, photographs and illustrations. A general overview of Australian seashores with a summary of wetlands in one chapter.

Underwood, A.J. and Chapman, M.G. (1993). Seashores. A Beachcomber's Guide. New South Wales University Press, Kensington, NSW. 116pp, diagrams and colour photographs. Relevant chapters on the plants and animals of mangroves and salt marshes, with excellent photographs of some species. Glossary also included.

Wetland Conservation

Balla, S.A. and Davis, J.A. (1993). Managing Perth's wetlands to conserve the aquatic fauna. Water Authority of Western Australia, Perth. 147pp, illustrations and photographs (some colour), maps. Detailed description of the wetlands of Perth on the Swan Coastal Plain. Topics specific mentioned are the wetlands ecology, conservation, wetland management, and water quality management. Suitable text for senior secondary students.

Calder, W. (1981). Management of coastal salt marshes and mangroves: guidelines for an intertidal protection policy in Westernport Bay, Victoria. Department of Town and Regional Planning, University of Melbourne. 54pp, maps. Suggested environmental policy for the salt marshes and mangroves of Westernport Bay in Victoria, discussing possible management techniques.

Claridge, G. (1994). Caring for Wetlands. Department of Primary Industries, Brisbane. 65pp, illustrations. A practical guide to urban landcare projects for the nature conservation of wetlands.

Davis, J.A. and Rolls, S.W. (1987). A baseline biological monitoring program for the urban wetlands of the Swan coastal plain, WA: seasonal variation in the macroinvertebrate fauna and water chemistry of five Perth Lakes. Environmental Protection Authority and the Water Authority of Western Australia. Perth, 80pp, illustrations and photographs (some colour), and maps. Detailed description of the urban wetlands in Perth, Western Australia, with specific reference to the freshwater invertebrates in these ecosystems, the environmental monitoring of the wetlands with techniques such as the monitoring of water quality.

Davis, T.J. (1993). Towards the wise use of wetlands: report of the RAMSAR Convention Wise Use Project. RAMSAR Convention Bureau, Gland, Switzerland. 180pp. Discusses the importance of wetlands as waterfowl habitats.

Davis, T.J. (1994). The RAMSAR Convention Manual: a Guide to the Convention on wetlands of International Importance especially as waterfowl habitats. RAMSAR Convention Bureau, Gland, Switzerland. 207pp. Discusses the aims of the RAMSAR convention, wetland conservation, and the international law and legislation towards the protection of migratory bird habitats.

Department of Conservation and Environment, Western Australia. (1980). Guidelines for the Conservation and Management of Wetlands in Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Environment, Perth, Western Australia. 50pp, photographs. Discusses the value of wetlands, wetlands ecology, conservation and the factors causing degradation and the destruction of a wetland. Factors described are drainage, excavation, pollution, soil erosion, aquatic weeds and salination.

Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Water Victoria, and the Ministry of Planning and Environment. (1988). Wetlands Conservation Program for Victoria. Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Melbourne. 42pp, illustrations and photographs (some colour). This government report discusses wetlands in Victoria, their values and uses, and issues effecting wetland conservation such as drainage, recreation, plant and animal pests, commercial fishing, and pollution, and possible approaches to conservation. Also noted are sites of significance to RAMSAR, JAMBA, and CAMBA.

Dissegna, J. (1995). The Ribbon of Life. Coastal Conservation in Australia. Cardigan Street Publishers, Carlton, Melbourne. 58pp, illustrations and diagrams. This reference gives a general outlook of coastal conservation, discussing such topics as; the coastal environment, the roles of the coast, human development (including the clearing and reclaiming of wetlands), coastal threats and pollution, coastal flora and fauna, and conservation. Diagrams are given along with a glossary.

Dugan, P. (ed). (1993). Wetlands in Danger. Reed International Books in conjunction with IUCN-World Conservation Union, London. 187 pp, full colour, detailed index. This is a hard-covered reference book on the wetlands of the world and the problems that they face. The text is easy to read and the excellent photographs illustrate both the features, flora and fauna and the management issues. There are four chapters on what and why, and adapting to life in the wetlands and wetland loss. The Australian chapter is only five pages long but covers aboriginal use of wetlands, Lake Eyre and Kakadu National Park. However, the information on world wetlands is very interesting and shows the variation in wetlands throughout the world.

Hammer, D.A. (1992). Creating Freshwater Wetlands. Lewis Publishers Inc., Chelsea, USA. 298pp, photographs and diagrams. Discusses the functions and components of wetlands, and provides suggestions for the restoration of degraded areas, and designs for project planning.

Matthews, G.V.T. (1993). The RAMSAR Convention on Wetlands: its history and development. RAMSAR Convention Bureau, International Union for Conservation, Gland, Switzerland. Summary of the convention and its aims towards wetlands conservation.

McComb, A.J. and Lake, P.S. (eds.). (1988). The Conservation of Australian Wetlands. Surrey, Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd in association with WWF Australia, Chipping Norton, NSW. 196 pp, illustrations and photographs. This is the definitive text, with chapters on each state's wetlands and discussions on the Commonwealth approach and conservation and management in general. Reading level is upper secondary/tertiary and there are no student activities. However, descriptions of features, fauna and flora are clearly set out and most secondary students would be able to use this book. There are detailed bibliographies for each state.

Moore, P.J. (1991). Inland Waters of Australia: Taking Stock After 200 years. River Publications, Magill, South Australia. 35pp, illustrations and maps. Text describing the Australian wetlands and their ecology, with specific details about water conservation and aquatic reserves.

Oates, N. (1994). Managing Your Wetland: a Practical Guide for Landholders. Victorian Wetlands Trust, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, East Melbourne. 58pp, Illustrations and photographs (some colour). A guide designed for the regeneration of wetlands on private properties. The contents includes the planning of a wetland project, the techniques used, description of urban and industrial wetlands, management issues, case studies of wetlands that have been regenerated on private properties, and the guide also provides advice, information, support and discusses possible incentives. Payne, N.F. (1992). Techniques for Wildlife Habitat Management of Wetlands. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA. 549pp, illustrations and photographs. Text suitable for senior secondary students. Contents are wildlife habitat improvement, wetlands management and conservation, vegetation management, wildlife management and nesting, and water controls.

Saenger, P., Hegerl, E.J. and Davie, J.D.S. (ed.). (1983). Global Status of Mangrove Ecosystems. Elsevier Sequoia, Lausanne, Switzerland. 88pp, illustrations and maps. Report prepared by the Working Group on Mangrove ecology of the IUCN Committee on Ecology in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Program and the World Wildlife Fund. This report discusses the mangrove swamp ecology of the world, and the factors effecting them.

Wardrop, J.A. (1987). The effects of oils and dispersants on mangroves: a review and bibliography. Centre for Environmental Studies, The University of Adelaide. 70pp, illustrations and maps. Details the environmental aspects and effects of oil spills on mangrove plant species.

Zann, L.P., Ocean Rescue 2000 program, Department of the Environment, Sport and Territories, Canberra. (1995). Our Sea, Our Future. Major findings of the State of the Marine Environment Report of Australia. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Queensland. 112pp, colour photographs and maps. Government report on Australia's marine environment. Comprehensive scientific description of the marine ecosystems, with suggestions of possible conservation methods.

Teacher and Student References

Breidahl, H. J. (1989). Shellfish Survival. Caring for the Coast. Gould League of Victoria Inc., Melbourne. 17pp, illustrations. An activities book suited to junior secondary students. The activities aim to develop an understanding for the coastal environment, and suggests ways that it can be conserved.

Chapman, G., Graham, R. and Peat, M. (1995). Development of Procedures for Cooperative Environmental Study Programmes. Institute of Marine Ecology, University of Sydney, diagrams. Guide to provide advice to teachers about approaching different ecological questions.

Claridge, D. and Burnett, J. (1993). Mangroves in Focus. Wet Paper, Queensland. 160pp, illustrations, diagrams and photographs (some colour). Textbook suitable for senior secondary students, covering topics such as the role of mangroves in the coastal environment, the identification of mangrove species and the distribution in eastern Australia. It also provides activities for school and community groups.

Coulombe, D.A. (1984). The Seaside Naturalist. A guide to study at the seashore. Simon & Schuster, New York. 246pp, illustrations. An illustrated student guide to the characteristics of various marine plants and animals. Appropriate for primary and junior secondary students, with activities, quizzes, and glossary provided.

Erbacher, J. and Erbacher, S. (1993). Life in the Mangroves. J & S Erbacher, Urangan, Queensland. 64pp, colour illustrations and maps. A reference for junior secondary students, discussing mangrove swamp ecology, with particular information about the animal and plant species most likely to be found in this ecosystem.

Kesselheim, A. S. (et al.). (1995). WOW! The Wonders of Wetlands. Environmental Concern Inc. and The Watercourse. 330 pp, illustrations. This book contains over 50 classroom outdoor and activity lessons. It includes clear, easy to read background information cross-referenced with exciting activities and project ideas for projects to conserve, enhance and restore wetlands in your community.

Marshall, D. (1991). Investigating a Wetland Environment: a Practical Fieldwork Guide. Department of Conservation and Environment, Melbourne. 58pp, illustrations and maps. A practical fieldwork guide for wetlands in the Melbourne region, suitable for senior secondary students.

Moffatt, B. (1992). Marine Studies. Wet Paper Publications, Queensland. 608pp, diagrams. Marine studies textbook for secondary students.

Moffatt, B. (1995). Marine Environment Students Manual. Wet Paper Publications, Queensland. 326pp, maps, diagrams and photographs. This student reference is a companion manual to the textbook Marine Studies for secondary students, with study exercises.

Pettigrew, C. (1984). Wetlands: Teacher's Kit. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Sydney. A teacher's kit on the wetlands of Australia. The portfolio has 38 pieces, which includes illustrations, 3 sheets, 6 photo resource cards, 1 poster, 12 activity sheets, and 16 background note sheets.

Reid, A. (1992). Coasting. Activities for coastal excursions and beach holidays. Gould League of Victoria Inc., Melbourne. 64pp, illustrations. Ideas for coastal excursions appropriate for primary school and junior secondary students.

Richie, R., (ed.). (1990). Australian Geography: Current Issues. McGraw Hill Book Company, Sydney. 174 pp 2 colour. This geography text book for senior students has Chapter 5 'Tidal Wetlands: Issues in their use and management'. There is much informative text, useful diagrams and black and white photographs, as well as 'checking for understanding' exercises, skills-based field work, challenging activities incorporating aerial photographs, statistics, simulation and news clippings. Though Queensland based, this chapter raises issues facing all Australian coastal managers and user groups.

Smith, J.H. and John, E.W. (1979). Below High Water. Education Department of South Australia. 68pp, illustrations. Student guide to the coastal zone, and plant and animal relationships. Identification techniques, and field and laboratory activities included.

Wallis, W. (1992). Ponding. Activities for your local lake, pond or puddle. Gould League of Victoria Inc., Melbourne. 64pp, illustrations. A companion book to Alan Reid's Coasting with ideas for pond and wetland excursions appropriate for primary school and junior secondary students.

General Coastal References

Carefoot, T. and Simpson, R.D. (1985). Seashore Ecology. University of Queensland Press, Queensland. 278pp, photographs, illustrations and diagrams. Some relevant chapters relating to wetlands and mangroves, with some Australian habitats mentioned.

Carter, R.W.G. (1988). Coastal Environments: an introduction to the physical, ecological and cultural systems of coastlines. Academic Press, London. 617pp, illustrations. General information on coastal ecology, ecosystems and coastal zone management.

Manuel, M., McElroy, B. and Smith, R. (1995). Coastal Conflicts. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne. 108pp, colour illustrations and maps. Coastal zone management reference for senior secondary school students.

Recher, H.F., Lunney, D. and Dunn, I. (ed.). (1986). A Natural Legacy. Ecology in Australia. Pergamon Press Australia, NSW, second edition. 443pp, diagrams, maps and illustrations. Some relevant information on wetlands in this reference, with an excellent glossary provided for student use.

Underwood, A.J. and Chapman. M.G. (ed.). (1995). Coastal Marine Ecology of Temperate Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney. 341pp, illustrations, maps and diagrams. Some relevant chapters on mangrove and salt marsh flora and fauna. Written as a textbook for teachers of high school and undergraduates.

This bibliography was compiled by Sonia Toneatto with the support of Jan Oliver for Seaweek'96. It is intended for use by both primary school and secondary school teachers and could also be used by students. Please note that publication dates are as up-to-date as possible but we are aware that in some cases more recent editions are available. We are also aware that some of the publications listed in this bibliography are either out of print or may be hard to obtain, however we encourage you to be persistent.

For references of specific wetlands in your state, information may be obtained from your State Government Conservation or Environment departments.

© 1996 by Marine Education Society of Australia
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