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  Seaweek 1999    
   

Teacher Resources - 11

Etymology in Marine Biology
Jane Breidahl 1998

Latin and Greek Roots

Actinos

ray

aer

air

alga

seaweed

amoeb

change

andro

male

anellus

a little ring

annulus

ring

antarcticus

of the extreme southern regions

anthos

flower

anthropo

man

apex

tip

aster

star

aureus

golden

auricula

of the ear

australis

southern

bentho

the deep sea

bios

life

brachion

arm

brachys

short

branchia

gills

brevis

short

bryon

moss

bysso

a fine thread

calcar

lime

candidus

gleaming white

capillus

fine hair

cardio

of the heart

cauda

tail

cephalos

the head

ceratos

horn

chaeto

bristle, hair

chiton

tunic

chloros

gree

chondros

cartilage

chordos

chord or rope

chromos

colour

cilium

eyelash

clad, clado

a branch or stem

cnido

nettle

coelo

hollow

cornu

horn

cranium

the skull

crusta

rind

crypto

hidden

cteno

a comb

cyano

blue

cyclos

circle

cystis

bladder

cyte

cell

dens

tooth

derm

skin, layer

desmos

a bundle

dinos

whirling, rotation, eddy

dors

back

dyo

enter

echino

sharp spine

eco, ecco

house or home

ekhinos

hedgehog

enteron

gut

erythro

red

exiguus

scanty, small, faint, insignificant

fissilis

cleave, split

flagellum

whip

flora

flower

fragilis

brittle

frons

the forehead

fuco

red

gamos

marriage

gastro

stomach

geo

earth

gibbous

bulging

glaukos

silvery, gleaming

gnatho

jaw

gonos

seed

grandis

large

gymno

naked, bare

gyn

female reproductive organs

hapalos

soft, gentle

helios

the sun

helmins

worm

hemo, haemoto

blood

herb

pertaining to plants

homo

man

hydro

water

ichthyos

fish

ketos

whale

knide

nettle

krinon

lily

labium

lip

lac

milk

latus

side

litoris

shore

lobus

lobe

logos

study, science

lophos

crest

macula

a spot

major

large

makros

large

mamma

a breast

mare

sea

maxima(us)

largest

melan

black

minor

smaller

mollis

soft

morphos

form

myrios

countless

nanus

dwarf

necto

swimming

nemato

thread-like

neuro

nerve

notos

the back

oikos,oecious

house

omni

all

ophis

snake

os, or

mouth

osteon

bone

ostracon

shell

otis

ear

oura

tail

pario

to bear

pedicel

foot, leg or stalk

phago

eating

phaios

brown

phoros

bearing

photos

light

phulon

a stock, race or kind

phyllo

leaf

phyton

plant

pinna

feather

placo

plate, scale

planktos

wandering, drifting

plasma

form, mould

plast

formed body

platys

flat

pleuron

side, rib

pod

foot

poros

a way through

proktos

anus

rhodon

rose colour

rostrum

beak

ruber (rubra)

red

sac

pouch, bag

sapiens

wise, sensible

scapho

boat

sclero

hard

scypha

cup

secta

cut or divided

sessilis

without a stem, sedentary

seta

veil

telson

boundary, limit

tetra

four

venter

belly

vertebra

joint

vita

life

zoon

animal

Prefixes

a, an

not, without, less

ad

to, attached to

albi

white

amb,ambi

on both sides

amphi

double, on both or all sides

ana

throughout

andr, andro

man

aqua

water

arth

joint, jointed

auto

within, internal

bi

two, twice, double

bio

related to life

brachy, brevi

short

cara

head

carn

flesh

cephal

head

chloro

green

chrom

coloured

crusta

rind

deca

ten

di

double

dia

through, across

dys

bad, ill

ec

out of

ecto

outside

end

in

endo

within, internal

epi

upon, above

erythro

red

eu

proper, true, good

ex

out, from

exo

outer, external

extra

outside of, beyond

gam

unit of sexual fusion

gen

origin, development

haplo

single

heme, hemo

blood

hetero

different, other

hetero

other

holo

whole, entire

homo, homeo

same, similar, like

hydro

pertaining to water

hyper

above, more than normal

hypo

below, less than normal

inter

between

intra

within, inside

iso

equal

macro

long, large, great

melan

black

meso

middle

meta

later, following, changed in form

micro

small

mono

one

multi

consisting of many units

noto

back

octo

eight

oligo

few

omni

all

oo

pertaining to an egg

opistho

rear, hind

osteo

bone

para

beside

penta

five

peri

around

photo

pertaining to light

phyto

pertaining to plants

plasm

formative substance

pneuma

air, breath

poly

many

post

after

pre

before

proto

first

pycno

dense

retro

backwards

sub

below, under, smaller

sym, syn

together, with

trans

across, through, over

tri

three

uni

consisting of one

zoo

of(or resembling)animals

Suffixes

alis

pertaining to

ata, ida, oda

scientific endings for the names of groups of animals

cide

killer, a killing

cyte

cell

fer

to carry or bear

idae

members of the animal family of

ite

rock

lysis

a releasing, loosening, to burst

meter

measure

nomy

the science of

oid, oide, oides

resembling

ology

the study of

phore

a bearer

plasm

formative substance

pod

foot

sis

process

tom, tomy

cut out, cut

Next: A quick look at marine life



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