This icebreaker, called 'Wally the Whale', provides an enjoyable way for
participants to get to know one another and starts them thinking about the
coastal and marine environment. The module has been designed for primary
school teachers and illustrates an icebreaker they could use with their
2. Coastal and Marine Themes Across the Curriculum
This mini-lecture introduces participants to the cross-curricular nature
of coastal and marine studies. The mini-lecture should be developed from
OHT 3 and OHT 4
and the notes below. The mini-lecture should give an overview of the cross-curricular
nature of coastal and marine studies. Follow the mini-lecture with the two
groupwork activities that develop a more detailed understanding of 'content
integration' and 'process integration'.
- Begin by reminding participants that coastal and marine studies should
not be seen as a separate subject in the curriculum. Coastal and marine
themes can be used in many, if not all, curriculum areas.
- Make the point that coastal and marine themes should be linked to
terrestrial themes as often as possible. Human activities in all environments
impact on coastal and marine environments.
- Display OHT 3 which is a quotation from Agenda 21.
It notes the importance and validity of a cross-curriculum approach
when dealing with environmental issues.
- Remind participants that one of the most common concerns teachers
have is curriculum 'overload'. Teachers often feel pressured by the
requirement to cover the core content of key subjects (e.g. English,
mathematics and science). When special school activities and class management
issues are added to an already busy routine many teachers could be tempted
to feel that, as important as coastal and marine studies are, it is
just one thing too many to squeeze in.
- Explain that the purpose of this part of the workshop is to provide
ideas to help teachers overcome these concerns by understanding two
- Coastal and marine studies can become part of the curriculum without
'stealing time' from other subjects because it can easily be integrated
into the educational objectives of all subjects.
- A coastal and marine theme approach to teaching can help students
develop core skills for learning in all Key Learning Areas.
- Display OHT 4 which outlines the difference
between 'content integration' and 'process integration'. These two concepts
reflect the two key ways of infusing coastal and marine themes across
the total school curriculum.
- Explain that the following activities develop a detailed understanding
of 'content integration' and 'process integration'.
3. Integrating through the Content of Subject Areas
- Ask the groups to report back to the whole group with a brief outline
of the learning experiences they identified. Debriefing this activity
could prove time-consuming if every group reports its ideas for every
subject area. To save time, groups could be asked to report on one subject
area each. Alternatively, groups could be asked to provide ideas to
the workshop facilitator for a comprehensive whole group report to be
compiled and distributed at the end of the workshop.
- Some questions that might be asked in the debriefing include:
- How easily can coastal and marine themes be infused into all subjects
- Can coastal and marine themes be infused into all aspects of a
subject area? How?
- Did you identify any areas where it would be difficult to introduce
coastal and marine themes? Why?
- Were terrestrial themes linked to the coastal and marine themes?
Why is this important?
- Distribute a copy of Resource 2 that
gives an example of integrating the topic of 'Coastal and Marine Reserves'
into the eight Key Learning Areas in Australia. Allow 5-10 minutes for
discussion of the example.
- As a follow up or application exercise, distribute an A3 enlarged
copy of Resource 3, which is a
blank version of Resource 2. Allocate
each group one of the following coastal and marine themes (or ask groups
to select their own theme) and ask them to complete a diagram showing
how this topic could be taught through the eight
Key Learning Areas:
- Beach erosion and protection
- Living on the coast
- The Great Barrier Reef
- Endangered marine species
- Managing wetlands
- The ocean: Our ultimate sink!
- Coastal and marine tourism
Note to facilitators:
Remind participants to try to write their examples as active learning
experiences (as in Resource 2)
not just as content topics.
4. Integrating Through Learning Skills and Processes
In this activity participants are introduced to a second strategy for infusing
coastal and marine studies across the curriculum. This activity shows participants
that coastal and marine themes can be used to develop attitudes and skills
that meet the generic process objectives of the curriculum.
- Distribute Resource 4 which lists
some process objectives which teachers of any subject area can use when
addressing coastal and marine themes.
- Ask the whole group to identify any of the objectives that are specific
to coastal and marine studies. (There should not be any as Resource 4
lists only generic or cross-curricula skills and attitude objectives.)
- Ask participants to continue working in their groups from the previous
activity and to re-examine their completed copies of Resource 3
in relation to the process objectives on Resource 4.
Ask each group to identify the particular skill or attitudinal objectives
(on Resource 4) they were seeking to develop in the eight learning
experiences they suggested on their completed versions on Resource 3.
- End this activity by displaying OHT 6 which
lists examples of some of the many skills and attitudes that coastal
and marine studies can help students develop. Many similar examples
should have arisen in this activity.
5. Integrating into Key Learning Areas
This group activity provides participants with an opportunity to apply ideas
from Activities 3 and 4 in order to identify ways in which they
can infuse marine and coastal themes into Key Learning Areas (KLAs). This
activity also helps participants to develop skills that they can use to
integrate coastal and marine themes into their particular State or Territory
- Introduce this activity by showing OHT 7.
Explain that there are eight Key Learning Areas (KLAs) and that each
is divided into several strands and strand organisers; within each strand,
eight achievement levels have been developed and illustrated with 'pointers'
(refer to examples of 'pointers' in Levels 1 and 2 of Resource 5A).
- Divide participants into groups of 3-4. Explain that each group will
be allocated one KLA and one of its strands that are relevant to coastal
and marine studies. These are provided in Resource 5A-F
which should be enlarged onto A3 to enable participants to write on
them more easily.
- Ask each group to identify examples of ways in which marine and coastal
studies themes could be integrated into their allocated KLA strand.
Groups should be asked to think of topics and activities they could
use to incorporate - as and where appropriate - marine and coastal
issues as 'pointers' into each level and strand organiser and list them
on their A3 sheet. Explain that coastal and marine 'pointers' for levels 1
and 2 have been provided as examples.
Note to facilitators: If participants are all K-7 teachers they
probably only need to look at the first five levels. If they are secondary
teachers they should look at levels 5-8. To provide more relevant
examples, facilitators could provide photocopies of their own State/Territory
curriculum documents instead of the national KLA examples provided in
- Groups present their A3 posters to the whole group for discussion,
perhaps pinned on the wall as a display.
- Provide participants with a copy of Resource 6
which is a completed sample set of KLA and strand opportunities for
coastal and marine studies in Resource 5.
Explain that this is an example of how teachers might begin the process
of identifying opportunities for integrating coastal and marine themes
The purpose of this activity is to give participants an opportunity to review
the major concepts and skills developed in the workshop and to identify
key actions that they would like to take in their teaching situation, now
or in the future, to help them adopt a cross-curricular approach to coastal
and marine studies.
- Ask participants to work either individually or in groups of teachers,
if they are from the same school, to complete a copy of Resource 7.
This will enable them to identify actions that need to be taken to begin
the process of working co-operatively with other teachers in their schools
and other members of the school community to plan an across-the-curriculum
approach to coastal and marine studies.
- Conclude by asking individuals/groups to share their plans.