and Air Temperature
animals that occur above low-tide level have differing abilities to cope
with being dried out by the sun. Some molluscs use a muscular foot to clamp
down onto a rock, holding in moisture. Other molluscs have operculums, which
are lids that accurately fit their shell aperture, holding in precious water.
Many creatures that are able to move seek shelter from the sun under rocks
or algal fronds, or in crevices, burrows, or rock pools. Desiccation is
probably the major environmental problem that must be solved by intertidal
Bennett, I. (1987) W. J. Dakin's classic study: Australian Seashores. p. 3-12, Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Davey, K. (1998) A Photographic Guide to Seashore Life of Australia. p.8, New Holland, Sydney.