Flap: In decapod crabs, the abdominal flap folds back under the carapace.
Underneath are the reproductive organs and swimmerets.
It is here that the female crab keeps the fertilised eggs while they develop
before hatching into larvae.
bottom plate of an echinoderm. Contains
the mouth, reproductive and excretory organs. Abdominal relates to the
belly, or digestive area.
Threadlike filaments armed with nematocysts. Found in jellyfish and anemones
Muscles: Transverse (across) that draw valves together. In bivalves.
To do with the digestive system. Between the stomach and the anus.
Areas of a body surface in which tube feet are situated. In sea
urchins and sea stars.
The group of
worms that contains the segmented worms, such as the earthworm, and the
leeches, as well as a number of marine species.
Appendages, in pairs, often jointed,
extending from the head. One group of antennae are tactile for touch,
while the other group are chemosensory,
Situated forward, towards the head end. As opposed to Posterior at the
tail end. See Gastropod shell
Excretory opening of the digestive system.
A hole, slit,
crack, gap or other opening.
Initial end of the shell
of a gastropod. This is also the
protoconch, or oldest part of a shell, right at the tip.
structure. Used for some activity such as walking, feeding, chemoreception,
touch or swimming. Term often used with arthropods.
A form of calcium carbonate.
Animal within the Phylum Arthropoda,
which contains the insects, spiders, ticks and mites, crustaceans.
Arthro = jointed; pod = foot.
Solitary or colonial sea squirt of the phylum Chordata.
Enclosed in a soft, gelatinous test.
Having no sexual or reproductive organs. Reproduces by division, or splitting
parts off the parent body.
Siphon: Exhalent (outgoing) siphon, expelling water. In an ascidian.
Ability to cast off a body part, usually at a plan of weakness. Usually
the part can be regrown. Sea stars,
Brittle stars and crabs can regrow body parts. Crabs
do so in a process called moulting.
Along the univalve mollusc
shell axis, around which the whorls turn.
Sculpture: Parallel to the axis. The imaginary line through the apex
around which a shell
A class of microscopic unicellular or filamentous organisms, without chlorophyll
or a well defined nucleus. Break down organic remains. Other bacteria
Disk: Disk at the bottom or base of an echinoderm. Contains the feeding,
reproductive and excretory organs.
Conical at each end. Usually relates to univalve
Animals and plants found at the bottom of the ocean or lake, either
living on to of, or within the substrate.
inflated or hollow. Inflated hollow structure called a vesicle
in an algae, often filled with air, to
Whorl: Largest whorl of a gastropod
Like branches. Relates to mollusc gills,
for gathering oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide.
cavity: Channel between foot and girdle
where gills are located. In molluscs.
The female crustacean looks after the
eggs while they develop, usually under an abdominal flap.
Strong filaments, for attachment. Secreted by the foot gland. In bivalve
or calcite: Limy or shelly matter (calcium carbonate).
Hardened area of the skin.
Thickened part of the skin or soft tissue.
Chitinous shield covering
head and thorax of a crab.
Carnivore: Flesh-eating. See feeding.
Wrist or region between forearm and metacarpus
The pinching claw of a crustacean,
including false crabs and crabs, with
a moveable and an immovable finger.
Claw-bearing appendage, terminating in a chelae or a pincer. See crabs.
Sensitive to chemical stimuli. Often associated with antennae.
Chitinous: Organic substance forming the horny covering of a crustacean,
including prawns, false crabs and crabs.
Chordata: The phylum of backboned animals.
Hair-like projections that create currents by rhythmic waving in unison.
fluid system where nutrients and oxygen are taken too, and toxic by-products
are taken from all cells in an organism. In higher animals referred to
Feeding "baskets" of the barnacles.
The individual feeding arms of a barnacle.
The single excretory cavity in some animals.
Soft bodied animals, such as hydrozoans, corals, jellyfish and anemones,
which have stinging cells (nematocysts). Once grouped with Ctenophora,
or 'comb jellies' within the old phylum Coelenterata.
body cavity of a cnidaria and ctenophore,
which is used as a stomach, an excretory organ and as a primitive vascular
system. Cnidaria included the jellyfish,
corals and anemones
Phyla Cnidaria and Ctenophores
were once grouped together as Coelenterates.
of organisms which prefer to live together.
The central pillar or axis of coiling in gastropod
molluscs. See gastropod shell
The body of a sea anemone.
One organism lives with another, but is not parasitic. The word refers
to the practice of "eating at the same table".
bending slightly inwards. See convex.
Circles or ovals having a common centre.
Surface, bending slightly outwards. See concave.
crenulations: Finely notched. Used to describe the margin or edge
of a shell.
A large group of aquatic arthropods with hardened shells. Includes
the prawns, shrimp, lobsters, yabbies, isopods
and amphipods, barnacles,
The Phylum which contains the Sea Gooseberries or Comb Jellies.
Organs: Long, white, poisonous sticky threads which are ejected through
the cloaca by a holothurian
A long, roller-shaped body with circles at the two ends, with straight
Cypris: One of the planktonic larval
stages of crustaceans, especially
barnacles. Called cyprid because it
resembles an ostracod, which is one of the crustacean groups.
Denticulate, Denticles: Toothed, small teeth or raised points. See
carapace and decapod
Feeders: Animals that feed on detritus which lies as an ooze on the
ocean floor, or left on a shore after the tide has gone out. Also includes
huge numbers of bacteria which is breaking down the organic remains. The
Deposit Feeders eat both the remains and the bacteria.
The ooze lying on the sea floor and left on shores after the tide has
recede. It consists of the broken down remains of dead plants and animals,
as well as the living bacteria which are living in and eating it. This
is a major food source for intertidal
and marine animals.
Disc: Central part or hub from which arms radiate, See echinoderms.
Top. See ventral.
Animals having a spiny skin. Member of the Phylum Echinodermata, including
sea stars, sea
urchins and holothurians.
overlapping scales which resemble small wings. In worms, and especially
the Scaled Worm, Lepidonotus melanogrammus.
Native to a country or a specific region.
In invertebrates, cuticle, the
outer chitinous part of a shell or covering.
Able to be turned inside out, like the finger of a glove.
Waste products discharged from a body.
Organ which discharges waste products from the body.
body part which can be turned inside out, like the finger of a glove.
Having a dense covering of short fine hair. Found on limbs of crabs.
The 'nippers' of the chelae, in crabs.
Lash-like slender appendage or limb. Found in sponges.
The body-part of a mollusc which is
used for contact with the surface, and on which to glide along.
Spindle-shaped, relating to the shape of a mollusc's
The "leaf" part of an algae. Not only does the frond take
up and release gasses like the leaves of land plants, it also takes in
nutrients from the surrounding water.
sex cell which unites with another in sexual reproduction.
The cell layer which lines the coelenteron
of the cnidarians and ctenophores.
A member of the Class Gastropoda, a group of asymmetrical molluscs in
which the foot is broad and flat, the mantle undivided, the shell in one
piece, usually conical. Includes the limpets, whelks, and other snail-like
The digestive - excretory system of a cnidarian
Like jelly, or gelatin.
The respiratory organ in animals that obtains oxygen from the water and
releases carbon dioxide. Most groups of marine animals have gills, including
The outer part of a mantle, not covered with shell plates, as found in
Globular: Rounded like a globe, sphere or ball.
Granulose, Granular: Covered with grains or tiny elevations,
Prefers to live together in groups. Often close together.
A place where an organism lives, including all the biological
and environmental factors.
Herbivorous: Plant eating. In the intertidal and marine environment,
this is the algae eating animals, including
Animal which combines the characteristics of both sexes, having both male
and female sex organs.
Water Neap: High
Water Spring: Every lunar month (28 days) there is one spring very
high tide and corresponding spring very low tide. A fortnight later there
is a not so high neap tide and a not so low neap tide. High water neap
is the same as high neap tide. See
Covered with hairs or bristles.
at the base of an algae which hold the plan to the substrate.
A Sea Cucumber of the Phylum Echinodermata.
Long, soft and worm-like.
Made of a horn-like material. Horn is made up of compacted and matted
Hydraulically: Working by the pressure of fluid pumped along an enclosed
Areas of the test (shell) between ambulaca (walking spines). Found in
a bivalve where one shell lies inside
the edge of the other.
lower part of the alimentary canal from
the end of the stomach to the anus.
Intra = within; specific = relating to the same species.
Turned inside out, like the pushed-in finger of a glove.
Animals without a backbone, including worms,
spiders, cnidarians, crustaceans,
Showing brilliant colours like these in a rainbow and changes colour with
position. These optical illusion colours are created by the special structure
of the light reflecting surface.
Longitudinal rib of the intermediate valve (middle shell plate) in a chiton.
laminate: Thin plates or scales.
(singular), Larvae (plural): Self-contained embryo before
it changes into the adult form. For some species, there many be a number
of quite different larval stages during development.
Plates: The side plates between the carina and rostrum in barnacles.
Raised fan-like area on the side of chiton
Very fine crisscross sculpture pattern on mollusc
A group of bloodsucking segmented worms. There are both freshwater and
Rounded and flattish, or hanging part often divided by a gap.
Running lengthwise, along the length.
Water Neap: Low Water Spring: Every lunar month (28 days) there is
one spring very high tide and corresponding spring very low tide. A fortnight
later there is a not so high neap tide and a not so low neap tide. Low
water neap is the same as low neap tide. See
Paired mouth appendages, as in arthropods
such as insects and crustaceans,
Flesh outer layer of the body. The mantle secretes and protects the shell.
Found in molluscs.
Cavity: Respiratory space between the mantle and the body. Found in
The free-swimming "jellyfish" stage in a cnidarians
life cycle. The other stage is the sedentary "polyp"
The fourth segment of a crab's walking
leg, which is attached to the carpus.
The jelly substance of a cnidarian
or ctenophore (coelenterate).
small section of habitat. In a small area.
A very large Phylum with about 100,000 species worldwide. Australia has
a very rich mollusc fauna. Molluscs usually have a shell, but not always.
Most have a fleshy foot, all have gills. They include the chitons,
Bacteria and cyanobacteria.
all arthropods, including crustaceans,
spiders, insects and others, shed their outer covering (epidermis) periodically
as the body inside grows in size.
nacre: Having a pearly sheen. Found in molluscs.
of the early planktonic stages of a crustacean.
lunar month (28 days) there is one spring very high tide and corresponding
spring very low tide. A fortnight later there is a not so high neap tide
and a not so low neap tide. Low neap water is the same as low neap tide.
High-water Neap and Low-water Neap.
Cnidarian stinging cell. As found in
Anemones and Jellyfish.
Active at night.
nodules, nodulose, nodular: Small lump, knob or knot, rough to touch
(nodule is singular; others are plural).
Free-swimming animals which are capable of moving where they want
to. They are different to plankton.
Small rounded bumps, which are part of a mollusc's shell sculpture.
Able to reproduce without two sexes coming together. "Juveniles"
bud off the parent body. In anemones.
Rod-like primitive backbone. Found in Ascidians.
group of often beautifully-coloured molluscs which have lost their shell.
They usually have feather-like gills.
At a side angle, at 45 degrees.
group of worms, which contains the earthworms.
Generalist feeder, both herbivore and
Having something to do with the operculum lid.
A covering or lid which closes an aperture, in molluscs
Disk: Areas surrounding the mouth. Found in anemones.
Angle: The angle at the junction of the eye orbit (hollow) and the
lateral(side) margin. In the anterior (front) edge of a crab
Orbital Tooth: A small bump at the
junction of the eye orbit (hollow) and the lateral(side) margin. In the
anterior (front) edge of a crab carapace.
Ovum: Female sexual cells in animals. Usually an egg in marine invertebrates,
capable of developing into a new individual when fertilised by male sperm.
Producing fully formed eggs that hatch inside the maternal (mother's)
body and are released later as live offspring.
related to the mantle. Found in molluscs.
Palps: Segmented sense organ at the mouth of
Lateral (side) extensions of the foot. Found in opisthobranch (nudibranch)
organism which feeds from another. May be plant or animal.
organism upon which another is living and feeding from.
process of one organism living on, and feeding from another.
Shaped like a comb.
The pincer-like structure on seastars
Male sexual organ.
Having five sides or angles. Most echinoderms
have a five-sided body plan.
Thin coat of horny material found on molluscs.
The cavity behind the mouth.
Single-celled plant plankton. See zooplankton.
Divided in a feathery manner.
Algae and animals drifting with surrounding
Small abdominal limbs adapted for swimming and carrying eggs. In crustaceans.
Operated by hydraulic (liquid) pressure along tubes.
major group of worms which have reached great diversity in the marine
and intertidal environment.
Having many nodules or knots.
A single zooid (individual) in a colony, and one of the life stages in
Translucent, porcelain-like. Found in mollusc
holes in a surface which allow fluid to seep through.
Allows water to seep through.
The rear, at the end.
Predatory, Predated: When one animal hunts down another for food.
Predator is the hunter; predated means the prey.
Spines: Longer spines, in sea urchins.
Long, retractable head extension with a mouth at the end. Found in worms.
Part of a worm's head in front of the
An animal, such as an ascidian,
which has several features which link them to the higher backboned (chordate)
The first, smallest whorls, which are the preserved larval shell, in gastropod
Surface sculptured with small depressions. In molluscs.
Arranged like rays around a central point.
symmetry: Equal proportion around a central point.
Tooth ribbon, for scraping algae off rocks, or slicing up flesh. Found
in molluscs. See also feeding.
Fine, branched outgrowths. Smallest "branches".
Regrow, renew or restore portion of body, usually over a series of moults.
Glands in male and female animals to reproduce further members of the
The process of taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide, usually using
gills in marine animals, and lungs in land animals.
Network pattern or formation.
Tentacles that can detect chemicals. In molluscs.
Rhizoidal: A single- or few-celled structure which attach an algae
to the substrate.
Raised lines in sculpture or ornamentation.
Beak-like projection of crab carapace
between the eyes.
Edged with semicircular lobes. Relates to mollusc
The pattern on a mollusc shell surface.
Spines: Shorter spines in sea urchins.
See primary spines.
Rarely moving, not strictly confined to one place.
Fine particled part of the substrate which
has been deposited such as silt, mud or sand.
Every arthropod has segments which allow its encased body or limbs to
flex and bend.
walls: Partitions or walls inside the column
of an anemone, or cnidarian polyp.
Attached to the substrate.
Stiff, bristle-like structures in worms.
Like a hair.
of male and female gametes to create offspring.
Calcareous covering secreted by mollusc
shell. Composed of lime, or Calcium Carbonate.
Plates: In barnacles and chitons,
the individual segments of the shell.
In molluscs, a tube-like
extension of the mantle edge to conduct water current for respiration
and/or feeding and for some bivalves,
locomotion. Ascidians, including
cunjevoi, also have two siphons
for respiration and feeding.
canal: A channel in the shell in which the siphon lies. In molluscs.
groove: A shallow groove in the shell in which the siphon lies.
The edge of the body which joins sea star
Spoon-shaped. Often refers to the marking left on the undersurface of
a limpet shell when the animal has been
removed or died.
Sexual fluid containing male gametes.
spheres, or globe-shaped objects.
Spiculed: Needle-like shafts. Relates to the spines in some chiton
Shaped like a coil spring.
Ribs: Continuous raised ridge which runs along the length of the spiral
around a molluscs shell.
The part of a shell (all whorls) above the aperture. In some gastropod
the reproductive products of algae that
are shed into water.
A flat-lying or creeping plant structure which lies along the substrate,
from which erect branches grow.
Narrow lines or grooves.
Below low-tide level, marine.
Surface on which an organism lives.
Line of junction of non-articulating parts. Spiral line marking the junction
between whorls in molluscs.
Small swimming appendages of crustaceans.
A mirror-image either side of an imaginary middle line.
Able to feel objects by touch.
Variety of sharp projections or bumps. In crustaceans.
Hind part of an abdomen, usually a sharp spike.
Flexible organs on the head. Some are used as tactile feelers. Other tentacles
are chemoreceptors, able to taste chemicals in the water.
Relating to, or belonging to the tentacles.
Forming little geometric shapes, such as squares, triangles, etc.
Shell or hard outer covering of echinoderms,
Organ in the male which produces and stores gametes.
The simple plant body of a non-vascular plant.
A small sharp projection or bump in a crustacean's
carapace shaped like a tooth.
Body region between the head and abdomen. In arthropods,
including insects and crustaceans.
Mantle cavity twists in front of body during developmental growth, in
A ciliated larval form of a mollusc
which is symmetrical and swims by cilia which
occur around its middle.
Feet: Flexible tube-like stems used in locomotion, attachment and
feeding. Found in echinoderms.
Small rounded elevations on the shell surface.
Body wall of tunicates. In ascidians.
Broadly conical spire, turban or top shaped.
Basal hollow in columella, in gastropod
Umbone: Point or apex of a bivalves
shell above the hinge. It also marks the juvenile shall and sometimes
Molluscs with a single-piece shell
covering. The shell may be flat like a limpet, or spiraled like a top
shell or turban. They are different to bivalves
(two shells), or multivalves (chitons).
Shell segment of a chiton, or half the shell of a bivalve.
Prominent axial ridges on whorls, marks position of outer lip at successive
stages of growth, in some gastropod
Made up of pipe-like vessels for conveying body-fluids, such as blood.
A larval form of molluscs which has
some adult organs and a ciliated lobe called
Lower, or undersurface. See dorsal.
Blister or wart-like swellings on an anemone column.
A floating gas-filled bubble or bladder-like structure. In algae.
Mass: Internal organs. In molluscs.
Bringing forth young alive. Not hatching by means of an egg.
One turn of a spiral shell. In molluscs.
group of colonial cnidarians, related
to anemones and corals. Zoanthids are
like corals without a skeleton. In each colony the individual polyps
are joined at their bases.
Animal plankton, including single-celled animals, juvenile stages of many
marine and shore animals, and larger animals such as jellyfish, etc. See
you know of any other words which should be included in this Glossary.
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